Polski
Deutsch

Guide

 

 

Tyniec - what is this ?

 

Tyniec is situated on the right bank of the Vistula river, in administrative city limit of Cracow, 12-13 km off the city centre. The picturesque region, hills, forest and the river attracts a number of visitors who wish to relax and get in some fresh air. Nine centuries ago Benedictines arrived at this place. On the rock by the Vistula river they built a monastery - abbacy, which emerges from the trees and reflects in the river.

The geographical location brought significant influence on history. The place required control and sometimes defence because the  road was of strategic value. The Vistula river, in its upper reaches, was used to be political border in the Middle Ages, from the first to the third annexation and then during the time of Free City of Cracow.

 

The monastery - Tyniec abbacy forms approximately a quadrangle with a few courtyards. The church is distinguished by the size, shape and the height of the roof, as if it was supposed to protect from the northern wind. The architecture is placed in the surrounding trees. The size of the place, its paucity, caused that a small monastery erected around the cloister with a viridarium in the middle. Later, when it was not enough, the land was levelled  and new wings were built that enclosed in the quadrangle. It is necessary to see the route on the map. It directs along circuitous wall through the gate, the castle - today: the guest-house - called 'Opatówka', to the courtyard, to the church, where it stops for long - next to the cloister and through the southern wing of the monastery to the farm buildings, finally through the garden to St. Benedict's gate.

 

The level differences emphasize the hierarchy of value: the altar and the church stand on the highest point, one takes seven steps to reach the cloister, the next four ones lead to the chapter-house. There used to be a refectory - a dining room - a bit lower, not mentioning the kitchen in the vaulted basement. Not enough space on the hill made the farm buildings be placed far lower. The whole sacred complex is clearer in the light of the Rule of St. Benedict, customs, needs and possibilities of those who have been living here for more than 900 years. Saint Benedict named the monastery 'God's home' and wanted everyone in it  'not to be worried or experience distress'.

 

The building above the gates, 'Opatówka' is the previous home of the abbot. The building itself resembles in shape number seven and is connected with the church tower. The northern wall of the inner courtyard was decorated with painted coats of arms, which are badly damaged today. Thanks to the old photographs it was possible to see some of them: the first one was the royal coat of arm (an eagle in a crown), next two knight ones - Doliwa and Ratul. The stylistics of  their production dates back to the second half or the end of XV century. Let us look at the monastery from the river side or from the courtyard to guess the purpose of the wall - defensive. The first record concerning the fortification dates back to XIII century. We do not know what exactly it looked like. The only mention can be found in Tinecia... by S. Sczygielski OSB (the history of the abbey issued in 1668).

 

HIERONIMUS KRZYŻANOWSKI

ABBAS TINECENSIS

MUNIVIT ATQVE MURAVIT

AN(NO) D(OMI)NI CHRISTI

 

(Hieronim Krzyżanowski, the abbot from Tyniec, strengthened this building and lined with bricks in A.D. 1573)

 

The war in XVII and XVIII century had bad influence on its glamour. The next rebuilt was made by Abbot Florian Amand Janowski, which is commemorated by the plate above the present entrance. The fire in 1831 burnt the roof of the present guest-house. In consequence the roof was covered with shingle and lasted as long as the Benedictines arrived at this place in 1939.

 

The monastery gate is placed right next to the church. The name derives from the latin word  porta, which means entrance door. In Tyniec this part of the monastery was erected by Abbot Stanislaw Pstrokoński. We can learn from the Poraj coat of arms and the date 1649 on one of the vaults.

 

Nearby there is a well which a number of people find very interesting both because of its charm and legend according to which it is supposed to be dug up in early X century. The well which is 40 m deep reaches the level of ground water. The wooden cover dates back to the first half of XVII century.

 

The courtyard required levelling as the hill was too narrow and the further expansion was towards southeasterly direction. The basements were built above which two or three storeys occurred. The southern wing with huge windows- it's the former library that was set up by Abbot Janowski in XVIII century. The western part of the courtyard consisted of buildings called 'county offices' for economical and administrative purposes. A piece of a wall preserved in front of the church - the former smokehouse, bath and sanitation.

From the courtyard we can see the western exterior of the church. The original towers were higher as well as the roof. The church entrance has preserved an element of stone door dating back to XV century. A hundred and fifty years later Abbot Łubieński put in the same place monumental marble portal with inscriptions and his coat of arms above the church entrance:

 

TEMPLVM HOC REGY CAENOBY

D.O.M.

SANCTISS[IMAE] VIRGINI MATRI
ET PRINCIPIBVS APOSTO

LORVM SACRUM

DIRVTIS VETVSTATE CORRVPTI
AECIFICY PARIETIBVS NOVA

FORMA NOVO THOLO NOVA POTICV NOVISQ(UE) TVRRIBVS

ET

SACEL[L]IS AC LATERA ADIECTIS AC ERECTO FRONTISPICIO

STANISLAVS ŁVBIENSKI ABBAS TYNECENSIS

STRVXIT ORNAVIT LONGEQVE AVGVSTIVS REDDIDIT

ANNO CHRISTI MDCXXII

SIGISMVNDO III POLON[IAE] ET SVECIAE REGI VITA ET

IMPERIVM REGIAE EIVS SOBOLI FELICITAS

PATRIAE CHAR[ISSIMAE] PAX/

TRANQUILLITAS ET CONCORDIA

 

(This temple of the royal abbey devoted in honour of Good and Almighty God, Virgin Mary and the Princes of the Apostles, following the demolition of the walls of the aging edifice, Stanisław Łubieński, the abbot of Tyniec, erected, decorated and made more splendid in Anno Domini 1622, adding the new shape of new vault, new portico, new towers and chapels on the sides and putting up the frontage. To Sigmundus III, king of Poland and Sweden, life and reign! To his royal offspring, happiness! To the dearest Motherland, peace, safety and harmony!)

 

In 1771-1772 the abbey was under fire and ruined by general Suworow's  artillery who was on the opposite bank of the Vistula river. The buildings from the river side were destroyed and never rebuilt. The only reminder of the buildings is a small acclivity by the wall opposite the Vistula river where, probably, basements are hidden. The rebuilt Tyniec took the painters fancy who reconstructed the monastery against a background of landscape, someone recreated the architecture in details. An individual characteristic were big, slender towers erecting upon the abbey until it all burnt in 1831.

 

The latest fronton decoration is Oginiec coat of arts of Cardinal Jan Puzyna, Cracow bishop, who took Tyniec away from Austrians (1903). When hope failed as to the Benedictines return, he supported the regeneration of the church and the buildings of the present guest-house where he organised a vacation house for the seminarists. The present-day low towers are the reminder of the rebuilt dating back to 150 years ago.

Ta strona korzysta z plików cookies.

Akceptuję Jeśli nie akceptujesz...